how the world sees america

Armenian Genocide? Let Turks Decide

Armenia_Aris_Work.jpg
Aris searching old Agos files.

America's "Armenian Genocide Resolution"? Bad idea, says this young Turkish Armenian editor. He wants American Armenians to focus on present day human rights, not old politics.

When Aris Nalci was 19 years old, he asked Hrant Dink, founder of Agos, a well-known Armenian weekly newspaper here, for a part-time job. What he got was a life mission: to engage the mainstream Turkish community in dialogue with their Turkish-Armenian co-inhabitants.

Aris was at Yildiz Technical University studying mechanical engineering at the time. He'd often talk with his classmates about "American Imperialism" after the Gulf War. But it wasn't until Aris devoted himself to the cause of improving relations between Armenian-Turks and the Turkish mainstream that he saw just how much of a nuisance a meddling American presence could be.

Hrant hired the young Aris as a photographer for Agos in 1997. He joined ten others on the brand new paper, now housed in a Victorian apartment with floral engravings lining the ceilings, walls covered with Hrant Dink portraits, and papers spilling off every desk. Aris, now 29, serves as the paper's news editor. He estimates that the paper's forty employees are on average about 30 years old. Together they publish 10,000 copies of Agos each week in Armenian and Turkish, mailing out 200 to the U.S., their largest international readership, half that to France and Germany, and the rest here. But don't be fooled, Aris says with a smile: their influence extends well beyond their subscription list.

Armenia_Agos.jpg
Agos the paper.

There are about 80,000 Turkish Armenians in Turkey, and Agos aims to put all of them in dialogue with other Turks. Members of this Christian community live mostly in Istanbul, where they have established vibrant churches, professional associations and Armenian schools that are allowed to teach Armenian language under the Lausanne treaty that protects Jewish, Greek and Armenian rights. Aris' parents, a teacher and an air-conditioner salesman, met at their local church where they both sang in the Armenian choir.

When Aris hit his late teens and moved from the cocoon of his Armenian high school to a diverse university, he faced discrimination for the first time. He claims that strangers regularly ask him, "Where are you from?" He replies, "Istanbul." But his interlocutors push, "No, where?" When he finally tells them he's Armenian, the conversation stops. A "sadness" descends, he says, and often he can feel the tension. Aris says Armenians are poorly understood within Turkey, their humanity shrouded in nationalistic rhetoric extolling a "Turkishness" that excludes them.

Over the years, the Armenians have been accused by parts of the Turkish public and political elite of wanting to claim Turkish land for Armenia. "There are some nationalist media who write that Armenians [in Turkey] want the country for themselves," Aris says. The seeds of that suspicion were planted at the turn of the 20th century when a diminishing Ottoman Empire slaughtered hundreds of thousands of Armenians, whom they claimed were threatening to carve out their own state. Since then, the diaspora community – the largest of whom number a million in the U.S. – has sought recognition of these events as a "genocide." The U.S. Congress recently proposed a non-binding resolution to do just that.

Armenia_Aris_Hrant.jpg
In Hrant's old office, which "hasn't changed at all."

The bill raised a furor in Turkey. For this reason, Aris says this type of political recognition hurts more than it helps: "When the third power comes in from the outside, it makes things more complicated. We have to solve this with ourselves.” He believes the American Armenian diaspora is relatively insecure about their identity. And believes they stake too much around the Turkish state's refusal to recognize crimes against their ancestors.

"After recognition? What then?" There are more problems for Turkish Armenians to address than just this, he says.

"Turkish Armenians don't think they can solve the problem [of accepting Turkish Armenians and recognizing genocide] by pressuring the Turkish Republic from the outside," says Aris. "We have to start talking with people, with citizens. A lot of people in Turkey don't even know what Armenian is. So how can you talk about something deep [in the past] with these people?"

On the other hand, Aris says, there are issues that Turkish Armenians wish their American counterparts would emphasize more, like the restrictive Article 301 legislation that restricts among other things "defamation of Turkishness." "This law affects all Turks, not just Armenians," he says. "But I don't hear anything about 301 from the [American Armenian] diaspora."

Armenia_Hrant_Protest.jpg
Photo of the rally where Turks cried, "We are all Armenians. We are all Hrant Dink."

Aris says he learned all this from his mentor, Hrant Dink, "who was more than a father to me and more than a brother." Hrant was murdered in January by a seventeen-year-old ultra-nationalist. In a show of solidarity with the Armenian community, one hundred thousand people flooded Istanbul's streets, crying, "We are all Armenians. We are all Hrant Dink."

With these demonstrations outside, Aris rushed to Agos and locked himself in with other staffers for a week to publish the message that Hrant would have wanted out to the world: Agos would remain open, it would keep pushing for dialogue, and it would honor the massive peace protests that came after his death, the demonstration of shared humanity, rather than the tragic moment itself.

"I have to be hopeful [for improved relations]," says Aris. "To remember Hrant's murder can hurt me but to remember what happened after his death can help me on my way at Agos."

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Comments (24)

Orhan:

To Rauf Naqishbendi

The number of kurds in Turkey does not exceed 7 million in a population of 68 million. The pkk is supported by a minority of kurds who are supported by the north-iraq kurdish leadership. The situation in south eastern-Turkey is not a kurdish insurrection but a armed guerilla warfare by marxists rebels against the population of Turkey.
The communist rebels have killed 37000 people, entire villages were slaughtered by them.

Amar C. Bakshi:

Diaspora Armenian, glad you included that thoughtful post and I'd love to watch this thread continue. It's been fascinating so far. On the topic of getting recognition for loss, what are the best strategies for Armenians within Turkey, do you think, as distinct (or perhaps not) from the strategies of the Diaspora?

Rauf Naqishbendi :

Turkey – Rejected by EU, Unwanted by US

The European Union’s tepid response to Turkey’s application for membership has deeply discomfited Turks. Turkey is without a doubt losing the esteem of the West, including the United States. Let us examine the aptitude of Turkey’s membership in the EU as well as a justification of the US’s dwindling relationship with Turkey.

The EU’s economic model is governed by the labor force’s adoption in the global market and industries’ flexibility to the changing market forces such as global trading, technological changes, aging populations, economic growth and fiscal discipline of its member countries. The only benefit Turks could have proffered the EU is its young labor force. But that contributing feature is overridden by two factors: the leading European players, Germany and France are suffering from double-digit unemployment, and the copious labor supply available from Eastern European countries which is by far more educated and skilful and would be easier to assimilate into the EU.

Turkey is much less developed and more populated than any major European member in the EU. During the eighties they built a sizable middle class which attracted the world’s attention. But one must look beneath the surface to find out that the prosperity came about through American foreign aid and US-sponsored guaranteed loans through the International Monetary Fund. Hence, it wasn’t representative of innovation or technological or industrial ingenuity, but rather of the leeching of American taxpayers. Here is a country with undisciplined fiscal policy, meager industrial capabilities, high inflation, and skyrocketing unemployment. Turkey has only liabilities to offer and therefore is decidedly not a country that the EU would be solicitous to include in their exclusive club.

The EU is unequivocally committed to honoring the universality and integrity of human rights – political, economic, social and cultural. More than any other issue, this covenant is by far the point of greatest difference between the EU and Turkey. To spotlight Turkey’s shabby democracy and their continual violation of human rights, consider the following:

• Turkish leaders claim that Turkey is a civil society where they hold elections to choose the members of their parliament. It is true: there are a parliament and elections in Turkey. It is also true that one-third of Turkey’s population, the Kurds, is not represented. This is a clear violation of the democratic system which stipulates fair representation regardless of creed or ethnic background.

• The identity of Kurds (again, one-third of Turkey’s population) has been denied, as the constitution conspicuously states that all citizens of Turkey are Turks.

• In the 1980’s, the mayor of the largest Kurdish city, Dyarbaker, discoursed with his constituents in the Kurdish language. He was sentenced to jail for more than a decade for using the outlawed language. Abuses like these of the Kurds’ human rights have been ubiquitous since the inception of modern Turkey.

• Since 1960 there have been three military coups d’etat and even today a right-wing military junta is ruling Turkey, not elected officials. In essence there is no democratic process in Turkey, while the upper echelon is military generals.

• Turkey’s ruling party is the Justice and Development Party (AKP), which is deeply rooted in Sunni Islamic fundamentalism and who deceitfully disguise themselves as secular. This is a mockery of democracy for democracy cannot exist in a country ruled by a rigid Islamic fundamentalist party.

• Turkey has embroiled itself in a war with Kurdish rebels (the PKK) who aim at equitable justice and freedom for the Kurdish minority. This armed conflict continues with no end in sight. Peace and stability is the environment where democracy can be nurtured; democracy cannot survive in a belligerent country.

• The EU has tried hard to get Turkey to grant Kurds human rights, yet Turkey has persisted in the repression of Kurds. The recent Turkish threat of military intrusion into Iraqi Kurdistan evidences the fact that Turks are not interested in democracy and respect for human rights. The resolution of the Kurdish situation was one of the top issues put forward as a prerequisite for consideration of Turkey’s admission into the EU, yet Turks chose repression and violence instead of granting Kurds their human rights and resolving their differences with the Kurdish rebels through civilized dialogue.

Since the Iraqi Liberation Turks have been taunting Western, in particular American, values and policies. For example:

• The level of American and anti-West sentiment in Turkey is one of the highest in the world. A recent Pew opinion poll showed that only 9 percent of Turks favor the United States while 28 percent look favorably on Iran.

• Since the Iraqi Liberation anti-Semitic sentiments have been on the rise. Hitler’s Mien Kampf has been one of the bestselling books in Turkey. At the same time, the relations between Israel and Turkey have been weakened while Turkey’s relations with both Iran and Syria have been strengthened.

• The anti-American sentiment in Turkey was recently reinforced with the release of a movie entitled “Valley of the Wolves” which portrays American soldiers as bloodthirsty fiends who are defeated by ragtag Turks in Iraqi Kurdistan.

• Metal Storm, a recent bestselling work of fiction, portrays an all-out war between Turkey and America in 2007 in which Turkey, with the assistance of Russia and the EU, defeats the US.

The refusal of Turkey’s entry into the EU is merited. Turks don’t resemble Europeans, nor has Turkey been willing to adopt the democratic principles required by the EU. Turkey must realize its tyrannical rule prevents it from becoming part of the democratic European Union. However, Turks are attributing the European lack of enthusiasm for Turkey’s admission into the EU to being Moslem. That may be true, although in this case the EU is well justified not to recruit a member nation that is ruled by fundamentalist Sunni Moslems, one of the most antagonistic nations in the world toward Western values and traditions.

Diaspora Armenian:

I agree with DC-American-Armenian, the world's Armenian community is fractured in a lot of subjects, even the Genocide. Not necessarily in whether they want it recognized or not but rather what they want to gain from it.

As I understand it, Armenians-Turks (or Turkish-Armenians, I don't know which term they prefer) want further engage in fraternity with their ethnically Turkish counterparts (ie: Turkish citizens.) What I believe that Armenian-Americans want is simply the recognition as an apology for an injustice to an entire culture and people, it's closure for us. If someone stole something from you or killed a family member and doesn't apologize or refuses to admit it, how would you feel?

I have met very very few Armenian-Americans who want anymore than that. You can speculate all you want that recognition would naturally flow into reparation demands even though no one is talking about reparations, but that still seems to be one of the main arguments for opposition to the point of paranoia.

I admit, US intervention isn't helping the situation much. But, as Zathras said, you have to look at what the resolution is. It's not a law, it doesn't make it illegal to deny the genocide in the US otherwise it would trump on the first amendment. It's just a recognition (and before anyone talks about how the US should recognize it's own indiscretions first like slavery and the Native Americans, etc., they already have been are extensively taught in elementary and junior high school curricula.)

Of course, I'm not going to fool myself into thinking that there aren't Armenians who don't want land or money from Turkey. But those are in such a minority that thinking they represent the desires of all Diaspora armenians is tantamount to saying that when Bush and Cheney speak they're saying exactly what all American citizens are saying. It's foolishness.

As for Armenian-Americans not aiding the Armenian nation and it's economy, according to a 2005 survey by the Armenian Statistical Agency the U.S. accounted for 15% of all investments into Armenia, the majority of which comes from diaspora Armenians. So the argument that Armenian-American's aren't doing much for the nation is untrue at best.

Finally, I'd like to point out that Raphael Lemkin (the man who coined the term Genocide) did so specifically because of what happened to the Armenians in 1915 and Assyrians in Iraq in '33. Just because the UN put a definition to it later, does that change what it is?


(I realize this post is quite late, just a few thoughts I wanted to get out there.)

Amar C. Bakshi:

An important issue that has been raised, especially over emails with me, is the one of the different prerogatives of different segments of the Armenian diaspora, the U.S. being just one contingent. What do you all think? Check out DC-American-Armenians' comment. He's a friend of mine from DC who has been engaged in these issues for years.

Amar C. Bakshi:

I received a thoughtful note from Leslie M., a facebook reader, and she has allowed me to paste it below to be considered.
***
I read your post: Genocide? Let Turks Decide. Some of the comments posted by your readers are decidely incorrect and I chose to write you here in the hopes that perhaps a different opinion might have the opportunity to be highlighted in a future blog.

In response to Mehmet's comment: "Turks continuously invite Armenians to get the allegations settled via UN institutions. They opened up their archives for historians to dig into the events of WWI but Armenia continues to refuse participating in such studies. In fact they would not share even a sheet of paper from their archives."

The Turkish Armenian Reconciliation Commission (TARC), formed July 9, 2001, by Turkish and Armenian civil society representatives, requested that the International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ) facilitate an independent legal study on the applicability of the 1948 Genocide Convention to events which occurred during the early twentieth century. On February 4, 2003, ICTJ provided TARC the following analysis on the subject. This analysis was issued to the public by TARC on February 10, 2003.

The Events, viewed collectively, can thus be said to include all of the elements of the crime of genocide as defined in the Convention, and legal scholars as well as historians, politicians, journalists and other people would be justified in continuing to so describe them.

www.armenian-genocide.org

S.M:

The past... no matter how small may not be forgotten, and history can not just be errased!!
Not just for the Armenians but also many other ethnical and religious minorities who have experienced a horrifying past....
A second country is allowed to put their hands into an issue that is taking so long for Turkey to solve; genocide is a crime against humanity... we cant let it slip away with ease; I am sure deep down every Armenian individual feels victimized and a solution is still necessary... lets face the reality!!!

Amar C. Bakshi:

a radio piece on Turkey I just came across:
http://www.americaabroadmedia.org/Turkeyshow.html

Amar C. Bakshi:

Hi Zathras! Nice to see a post from you. I would very much agree with your statement, and also point readers who think America has a concerted, centralized foreign policy establishment to check out this piece by Walter Russel Mead, Falling Upward. You may disagree with his diagnosis and prognosis for American power in the world, but he makes a good point about how outsiders imagine a tight-knit foreign policy establishment within the U.S. guiding a wide range of decisions -- but this is not the case. Makes for engaging reading: http://www.tnr.com/politics/story.html?id=bc641b19-51a1-4747-9af4-51e0ba57d500

Zathras:

If I could interject a word about the other side of the Atlantic Ocean:

The Armenian genocide resolution was approved by the House Foreign Affairs Committee, chaired by Rep. Lantos, a very senior Democratic Congressman and Holocaust survivor with an intense personal interest in questions relating to genocide and events with aspects resembling genocide. He had vocal support from a number of committee members from the California delegation, who have large constituencies of Armenian ancestry, and received encouragement from Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, a San Francisco Congresswoman who does as well. But without Lantos' personal interest in human rights abuses this resolution would not have passed.

It is highly unlikely it will be approved by the full House, let alone by the Senate (in the American system, it is the Senate that has primary Congressional jurisdiction over foreign relations). Outside the House Foreign Affairs committee (in which many members often defer to their chairman), most members of Congress do not regard passing judgment on events that happened almost a century ago in another country as a high priority -- especially since those events did not involve the American government at all.

Asked about their personal views, most members of Congress would probably say they think Turks should address the events of their past frankly. Deeper than that, sentiment in Congress and among the great majority of Americans does not go on this issue -- once again, primarily because the events in question happened a long time ago and did not involve the United States.

I add this to the discussion in the event some readers from countries other than the United States labor under confusion as to what actually happened in Congress, and about why it happened and what it means. The American system of government would not have lasted for well over 200 years if Americans were not deeply attached to it, but some of us do realize how perplexing its operation can be for non-Americans.

Virginia, USA. :):

Of course I don't really know enough of the specifics, having never been to Turkey (It's kind of far away and I'm broke). I don't know, sometimes one group is more reasonable then the other but I've found its often both groups that are causing things to fall apart. I really couldn't make any kind of judgement on the matter, which is why I think they should solve it themselves.

Also it's not exactly as if they're killing the Armenians at this moment. Modern genocides have a lot more trouble getting recognition as it would pull in military resources from other countries. Did you see how much dancing around the situation in Darfur politicians do, as they continue killing people? It's pretty rediculous.

Glitter:

Well I suspect its hard to communicate about sore subjects in general. I've found it works best to have a good idea of both sides. If you are seen as unfair, or partisan, the person you are trying to communicate with won't respect you. That's true probably in most issues but I've found its particularly necessary in political standoffs.

Partisans can either talk with other partisans (of their own group) or moderates but not with partisans of the opposite group and they always consider it the opposite parties fault if dialouges break down. And lets face it, most people are partisan and very few are completely neutral. This is particularly true the more passions run on the subject. Humans were not meant to be 100% rational, I think economists have missed this sometimes.

When you have national outpouring of sympathy, people often are able to denounce extreme elements in their general partisan outlook. And this allows them to show their willing to compromise without having to bend over backwards for individuals they find to be personally unreasonable. I think it'll be next to impossible to mandate everyone be nice to each other, and in particular nice to people they view as having an agenda.

It's really something they need to work out on their own at this point. It's been almost 100 years and there aren't any war criminals left to prosecute, they've all died of old age. Also don't you think its unreasonable to expect everyone you meet to be a scholar? There are some aspects of intellectual culture I find to be entirely intolerant and its not even confined to any one group.

Baqi Barzani:

Kurds strongly advocate and recognize the Armenian Genocide and do sympathize with the Armenians, Jews, christians and all ethnic and religious minorities in Turkey. The Turks try to put the blame on the defenceless Kurds. Kurds who had no authority at that time, were and are still the victims of Turkish persecution and try to emancipate themselves under the yoke of Turkish slavery. At least, we do not deny it.

Baqi Barzani:

Kurds strongly advocate and recognize the Armenian Genocide and do sympathize with the Armenians, Jews, christian and all ethnic and religious minorities in Turkey. The Turks try to out the blame on Kurds. Kurds who had no authority, were and are still the victims of Turkish persecution and try to emancipate themselves under the yoke of Turkish slavery. At least, we do not deny it.

Mustafa:

True, it is hard to speak to most Turkish people about shared history with Armenians. It is because they have either no information or distorted information on the subject. But the only way to get them to tolerate other views and start questioning theirs is to insist on dialog. Nothing else helps so everybody has to try hard. Of course same goes with Armenians, especially diaspora Armenians who also have problems accepting that not all they have been told are true. otherwise none-sense animosity will go on forever.

pro-armenian kurdish? a joke?:

Baqi Barzani,
Assuming you are a Kurd, I need to tell you something. The army fighting the Armenian rebels and escorting the exiles was mostly Kurdish. Just go to youtube and watch the survivors' interviews -you will see how much Armenians like Kurds.

Have you noticed the overlap between the wishful map of so-called 'Greater Kurdistan' and the wishful map of so-called 'Greater Armenia'?

nyoped:

Vic van Meter,
Do not fool yourself. The hate crime rate in the US is much much much much higher than it is in Turkey. You have a really distorted perception of Turks. We have forgotten WW1 long time ago. And we want others to od the same. The problem lies in the others' unwillingness to leave history behind.

Amar C. Bakshi:

Just testing to make sure the comment threads are still working OK. I just arrived in Lebanon.

DC Armenian-American:

The real issue isn't that Armenian-Turks don't think pressuring Turkey to recognize the genocide as such is the right way to go. What we should try to understand instead is that the worldwide Armenian community isn't a monolithic entity. Rather, Armenians from the newly-created Republic of Armenia have one set of interests, Armenians in Turkey have another set, and the Armenian Diaspora in the US represents yet another set of priorities - and these aren't all the subsets that exist.
We have to try and understand that the Armenians in the US got there mostly because their grandparents - and in some cases parents - fled the massacres and eventually found their way to the shores of Lady Liberty. As such, many of them speak Armenian poorly - preferring to communicate in Turkish - and have a unique outlook on what the Armenian experience is. For them, the genocide was a defining moment in their lives and the lack of understanding and recognition of that reality is a rejection of their present.
I would venture to guess that most Armenians - regardless of where they live - support Aris' calls for dialogue between Armenians and Turks. Unfortunately, those of us who have tried to engage Turks in a debate on the issue have come to understand that the very mention of the words 'Armenian' and 'genocide' in the same context triggers an immediate shutting-down from the Turkish counterpart. Individual Turks will not be empowered to have a dialogue on the subject as long as their government is unresponsive to the same.
Still, we will keep trying. And all methods of pushing this subject should be seen as valid and legitimate - because they stem from specific historical and personal contexts.

Mr.Newyork:

It is sad to see the term genocide being used pretty much for anything mostly for political interest or smear campaign these days like to commentator above in regards to Kurds " not the mention most of the killings of the Armenian were done by Kurds which was a massacre'. i am guessing most of the people dont know what the U.N definition of the term genocide is.
i strongly believe that Armenian-American Diaspora doesn't care about their fellow citizens in Turkey nor in their home land Armenia.
Armenia is the poorest country in the region every year thousands of Armenians die because of the lack of basic necessities " food,heat,shelter etc" not the mention the absents of democracy in the country.
that's why Armenians illegally immigrate to Turkey to find jobs and have a better life for them self and their families. there said to be over 40.000 illegal Armenians living in the country currently that alone should tell something to people who think Turks hate Armenians. those poor people easily can be deported back to where they came from.

Turks have no problem with the Armenians of Armenia or the Armenian-Turks.
In fact they showed their support, solidarity and love to Mr. Dink after his murder by the hundreds and thousands like the author of this block mentioned.

what basically Turks resents is the lack of reciprocation by Armenians.
when Turkish diplomats and their families total of 75 innocent people were murdered by the Armenian terrorist, Armenians here in USA were fighting each other to help to shelter ,protect and support the terrorist."instead of condemning the killings and they still refuse to do so"
but what did Turks do after Mr. Dink murder. they poured out on the streets by the hundreds of thousands and showed their solidarity and support to the Armenian community.
this is just one example of lack of good will coming from the Armenians.
not the mention that Turkey was one of the first country to recognize Armenian independence what did they do in return. they still dont officially recognize the border we share with them." hoping that they"ll get some land back"
these are the kind of things that makes Turkey continue on the sanction that she imposes on her and block her economically, politically, socially and Any means possible.
lets not forget it takes two to tango.
No one should expect Turkey to show good will all the time and get hostility in return

Baqi Barzani:

The Armenian Holocaust, Great Calamity is the first true genocide of the twentieth century. It is tantamount to the Jewish Holocaust and the ongoing Kurdish genocide. This genocide was perpetrated in 1915 by the Ottoman Turks. According to Turkey, it did not take place at all and there are no evidence to support this claim. Despite of its universal authenticity, Turks continue to repudiate it until today.

It has almost been a century. What about the current genocide going on against the Kurds? Is that deniable, too?

Thanks to the Senate foreign committee for passing the Armenian Genocide resolution.

MEHMET:

Turks showed their solidarity with their Armenian brothers. They really took to the streets in hundreds of thousand demonstrating as the article explains.

On the other hand it is naive to think the alleged genocide is only about historic reconciliation.

US Congress almost became an accessory to the biggest extortion to be attempted in the history of mankind.

Armenians living in the US knew full well if they could somehow have US institutions buy into their allegations, US government could be used as a lever to extort money from Turks.

Turks continuously invite Armenians to get the allegations settled via UN institutions. They opened up their archives for historians to dig into the events of WWI but Armenia continues to refuse participating in such studies. In fact they would not share even a sheet of paper from their archives.

Armenians figured out long time ago that if the scientist were to judge the matters the outcome would not be favorable. In fact they knew, if studied what was carried out in the hands of Armenian militia against the Turkish peasant population would also come out.

The only way to get their claims confirmed was to have politicians to decide on the matter who needed votes rather than scientific facts. And Armenians had many votes to offer in California which is the state from which the infamous resolution is coming from.

This is the truth for those who are interested in hearing it.

Vic van Meter:

It's kind of crazy. I can't imagine a South Carolinan being murdered in New York because his country once backed a revolution. I really don't know, between my Turkish friends, who is Kurdish, Armenian, or whatever else. It's hard enough to know they're not from inside the country anyway and just carry an accent.

The events that inspired the fear amongst some Turks at their neighbors (I doubt this hate is universal, or even amongst a majority, of Turkish citizens) camee around the first World War, correct? How long has it been? Isn't everyone who originally had the reason to be angry and hateful dead?

I'm certainly not, by any means, an expert on Turkish affairs. There's probably a lot to the conflict I don't know about, and I'm never really sure of its extents.

But I do know that if you're going to hate somebody, they'll give you plenty of reasons without discussing culture. I hate plenty of people without knowing where they're from.

Shoot, I hate most people that can drive already! You don't have to be in a car with me that long to feel the anger. It's like an aura of 'getouttamyway'.

Amar C. Bakshi:

Hrant's office has not changed. Here he is in the exact same room, hauntingly:
http://img.stern.de/_content/56/08/560802/nannen_01_500.jpg
Is portrait now is everywhere, all around the office building.

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